Wednesday, 28 September 2011

29 Sept anniversary of the third worst nuclear accident in the world

Map of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT): area contaminated by the Kyshtym disaster.

The Kyshtym disaster - Russia

In September 1957, the cooling system in one of the tanks containing about 70–80 tons of liquid radioactive waste failed and was not repaired. The temperature in it started to rise, resulting in evaporation and a chemical explosion of the dried waste. The explosion, estimated to have a force of about 70–100 tons of TNT threw the concrete lid, weighing 160 tons, into the air.[3] There were no immediate casualties as a result of the explosion, which released an estimated 2 to 50 MCi (74 to 1850 PBq) of radioactivity.[2][4][5]

In the next 10 to 11 hours, the radioactive cloud moved towards the northeast, reaching 300–350 kilometers from the accident. The fallout of the cloud resulted in a long-term contamination of an area of more than 800 square kilometers, primarily with caesium-137 and strontium-90.[2] This area is usually referred to as the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT).[6]

References1.^ a b Schlager, Neil (1994). When Technology Fails. Detroit: Gale Research. ISBN 0-8103-8908-8.

2.^ a b c "Chelyabinsk-65".

3.^ a b "Conclusions of government commission" (in Russian).

4.^ Kabakchi, S. A.; A. V. Putilov (1 1995). "Data Analysis and Physicochemical Modeling of the Radiation Accident in the Southern Urals in 1957". Moscow ATOMNAYA ENERGIYA (1): 46–50.

5.^ See also List of military nuclear accidents

6.^ Dicus, Greta Joy (January 16, 1997). "Joint American-Russian Radiation Health Effects Research". United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved 30 September 2010.

7.^ Pollock, Richard (1978). "Soviets Experience Nuclear Accident". Critical Mass Journal.

8.^ Medvedev, Zhores A. Nuclear disaster in the Urals translated by George Saunders. 1st Vintage Books ed. New York : Vintage Books, 1980, c1979, ISBN 0394744454.

9.^ Diane M. Soran; Danny B. Stillman (1982). An Analysis of the Alleged Kyshtym Disaster. Los Alamos National Laboratory.;jsessionid=AE63F0635724B2D67229E70E6BAE485A?purl=/5254763-UCvDE3/.

10.^ a b "The Southern Urals radiation studies: A reappraisal of the current status". Journal of Radiation and Environmental Biophysics 41. 2002.

11.^ John R. Trabalka (1979), "Russian Experience" pp. 3–8 in Environmental Decontamination: Proceedings of the Workshop, December 4–5, 1979, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CONF-791234

12.^ The Nuclear Disaster They Didn't Want To Tell You About/Andrew Cockburn/ Esquire Magazine/ April 26 1978

13.^ Gyorgy, A. (1979). No Nukes: Everyone's Guide to Nuclear Power. ISBN 0919618952.

14.^ "The decision of Nikipelov Commission" (in Russian).

15.^ R. Jeffrey Smith (Jul 10, 1989). "Soviets Tell About Nuclear Plant Disaster; 1957 Reactor Mishap May Be Worst Ever". The Washington Post: A1.